AS Name
FHRNET
Org Name
Filip Hruska
Registry Region
Czech
Looking Glass
IPv4Prefixes

1

IPv6Prefixes

3

IPv4 NUMs

256

IPv6 NUMs(/64)

196,608

256 IPv4 Addresses
CIDR Description IP Num
136.175.202.0/24 Filip Hruska 256
CIDR Description IP NUMs(prefix /64)
2a07:a905:ffe4::/48 FHR-20180010 65536
2a07:a905:ffeb::/48 FHR01-SPEEDIX 65536
2a07:a905:ffef::/48 FHR-20180004 65536
AS Description Country/Region IPv4 NUMs IPv6 NUMs IPv4 IPv6
AS34927 iFog-GmbH - iFog GmbH, CH Switzerland 2,048 1,638,400 IPv6 IPv6
AS39351 ESAB-AS - 31173 Services AB, SE Sweden 8,192 8,590,589,952 IPv6 IPv6
AS58299 OPENFACTORY-AS - Openfactory GmbH, CH Switzerland 2,816 8,590,065,664 IPv6 IPv6
AS49134 AS_10VPN - 10VPN Research Network LTD, GB United Kingdom 0 1,245,184 IPv6 IPv6
AS49697 Joey-Network - Joey Julian Koenig, DE Germany 256 262,144 IPv6 IPv6
AS199524 GCORE - G-Core Labs S.A., LU Luxembourg 96,768 338,427,904 IPv6 IPv6
AS202297 SKYLON - Skylon Solutions Limited, GB United Kingdom 256 4,295,753,728 IPv4 IPv4
AS24961 MYLOC-AS - myLoc managed IT AG, DE Germany 134,144 51,539,673,088 IPv6 IPv6
AS41327 FIBERTELECOM-AS - Fiber Telecom S.p.A., IT Italy 8,192 68,719,476,736 IPv6 IPv6
AS56662 EUTPNET - e-utp.net Marcin Gondek, PL Poland 0 65,536 IPv6 IPv6
AS205593 TaKeN - Marek Krolikowski trading as TAKEN.PL IT SERVICES Marek Krolikowski, PL Poland 0 18,219,008 IPv6 IPv6
AS206064 ALPINE-NORTH-NETWORK - Alpine North LTD, GB United Kingdom 0 524,288 IPv6 IPv6
AS211954 ROUTEIX-AS - RouteIX Networks Ltd., GB United Kingdom 0 9,306,112 IPv6 IPv6
AS6939 HURRICANE - Hurricane Electric LLC, US United States 503,040 282,665,489,268,736 IPv6 IPv6
AS50673 Serverius-as - Serverius Holding B.V., NL Netherlands 92,160 223,338,496,000 IPv6 IPv6
AS51088 A2B - A2B IP B.V., NL Netherlands 37,632 55,834,640,384 IPv6 IPv6
AS50629 LWLCOM - LWLcom GmbH, DE Germany 84,480 111,670,263,808 IPv6 IPv6
AS62167 Tismi - Tismi BV, NL Netherlands 3,072 42,949,672,960 IPv6 IPv6
AS137490 NAVICE-AS-AP - Forhosting, NL Netherlands 256 16,908,288 IPv6 IPv6
AS202365 Chronos - Omer GOLGELI, TR Turkey 1,792 1,572,864 IPv6 IPv6
AS20473 AS-CHOOPA - The Constant Company, LLC, US United States 1,001,984 105,492,774,912 IPv4 IPv4
AS1103 SURFNET-NL - SURF B.V., NL Netherlands 6,224,640 281,509,336,514,560 IPv6 IPv6
AS44684 MYTHIC - Mythic Beasts Ltd, GB United Kingdom 8,704 4,295,163,904 IPv6 IPv6
AS Description Country/Region IPv4 NUMs IPv6 NUMs IPv4 IPv6
AS38965 HOSTIN - Rick van der Sterren trading as HostIn, NL Netherlands 512 4,296,015,872 IPv6 IPv6
AS48011 DigiTurunc - Turunc Smart Bilgisayar Teknoloji Ve Dis Ticaret Limited, TR Turkey 1,024 196,608 IPv6 IPv6
AS51942 EKMEDIA - EK-Media B.V., NL Netherlands 3,584 34,359,803,904 IPv6 IPv6
AS196925 AZRT-AS - AZERTELECOM, AZ Azerbaijan 19,456 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS208364 SERVADA - Servada V.O.F, NL Netherlands 1,024 720,896 IPv6 IPv6
AS5394 Unidata - UNIDATA S.p.A., IT Italy 83,968 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS20559 FUNDAMENTS-AS - Fundaments B.V., NL Netherlands 28,160 77,309,542,400 IPv6 IPv6
AS39351 ESAB-AS - 31173 Services AB, SE Sweden 8,192 8,590,589,952 IPv6 IPv6
AS61135 COMNET-DATACENTER-ISTANBUL - COMNET BILGI ILETISIM TEKNOLOJILERI TICARET A.S., TR Turkey 4,864 262,144 IPv6 IPv6
AS16276 OVH - OVH SAS, FR France 3,780,096 17,179,869,184 IPv6 IPv6
AS41887 PROLOCATION - Prolocation B.V., NL Netherlands 22,784 111,669,280,768 IPv6 IPv6
AS50601 crossivity - Crossivity bv, NL Netherlands 1,088 34,359,738,368 IPv6 IPv6
AS64404 EVENTINFRA-AS - Stichting EventInfra, NL Netherlands 4,104 4,295,032,832 IPv6 IPv6
AS200299 BASESERV-AS - BaseServ Limited, GB United Kingdom 0 131,072 IPv6 IPv6
AS1103 SURFNET-NL - SURF B.V., NL Netherlands 6,224,640 281,509,336,514,560 IPv6 IPv6
AS50629 LWLCOM - LWLcom GmbH, DE Germany 84,480 111,670,263,808 IPv6 IPv6
AS203125 CoreRoute - Julian Braun, DE Germany 512 131,072 IPv6 IPv6
AS28260 ALTA REDE CORPORATE NETWORK TELECOM LTDA - EPP, BR Brazil 16,384 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS43561 NET1-AS - NET1 Ltd., BG Bulgaria 102,656 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS57782 CYNTHIA-AS - Cynthia Maja Revstrom, SE Sweden 0 38,654,836,736 IPv6 IPv6
AS202932 CLOUDMERGE - Quanza Engineering B.V., NL Netherlands 3,072 68,719,476,736 IPv6 IPv6
AS53356 FREE RANGE CLOUD - Free Range Cloud Hosting Inc., CA Canada 13,824 8,669,364,224 IPv6 IPv6
AS213201 AS213201 - Mathew Philipps, GB United Kingdom 0 131,072 IPv6 IPv6
AS205593 TaKeN - Marek Krolikowski trading as TAKEN.PL IT SERVICES Marek Krolikowski, PL Poland 0 18,219,008 IPv6 IPv6
AS8283 COLOCLUE-AS - Netwerkvereniging Coloclue, NL Netherlands 3,584 8,590,065,664 IPv6 IPv6
AS28658 Gigalink de Nova Friburgo Soluções em Rede Multimi, BR Brazil 22,528 8,589,934,592 IPv6 IPv6
AS29084 COMNET-AS - Comnet Bulgaria Holding Ltd., BG Bulgaria 39,936 34,359,738,368 IPv6 IPv6
AS41529 MEDIASERVE - MediaServe International B.V., NL Netherlands 1,024 34,359,738,368 IPv6 IPv6
AS60268 DIGITAL-COMMUNICATION-PALESTINE-ASN - Digital Communication Company for Telecommunications and Information Technology LTD, PS Palestine 7,168 34,359,738,368 IPv6 IPv6
AS198228 STS-AS - Silistra Telecom Solutions Ltd., BG Bulgaria 1,536 131,072 IPv6 IPv6
AS204281 NetX_BG - NETX - NG LTD, BG Bulgaria 10,240 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS207866 InCompanyMedia - InCompanyMedia B.V., NL Netherlands 512 65,536 IPv6 IPv6
AS211786 CheeseHosting - KaasHosting B.V., NL Netherlands 256 34,359,738,368 IPv6 IPv6
AS262428 Link10 - Cataguases Net Ltda, BR Brazil 9,216 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS264479 Turbozone Internet, BR Brazil 2,048 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS61568 ALOO TELECOM - FSF TECNOLOGIA SA, BR Brazil 12,800 4,295,032,832 IPv6 IPv6
AS8315 SENTIA - Sentia Netherlands BV, NL Netherlands 154,880 94,489,346,048 IPv6 IPv6
AS34779 T-2-AS - T-2, d.o.o., SI Slovenia 210,944 34,359,738,368 IPv6 IPv6
AS38230 NAVICENET-AS-AP - Forhosting, NL Netherlands 0 16,908,288 IPv6 IPv6
AS41047 NL-MLAB - BART Vrancken trading under MLAB, NL Netherlands 1,024 12,884,901,888 IPv6 IPv6
AS44592 SkyLink - SkyLink Data Center BV, NL Netherlands 9,984 143,881,535,488 IPv6 IPv6
AS51050 H4HOSTING-AS - H4Hosting BV, NL Netherlands 7,168 38,654,705,664 IPv6 IPv6
AS57118 COMMUNITYRACK - CommunityRack.org Verein, CH Switzerland 1,280 34,359,934,976 IPv6 IPv6
AS204805 voipedeu - Voiped Wholesale BV, NL Netherlands 6,144 30,064,771,072 IPv6 IPv6
AS28186 ITS TELECOMUNICACOES LTDA, BR Brazil 49,152 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS34927 iFog-GmbH - iFog GmbH, CH Switzerland 2,048 1,638,400 IPv6 IPv6
AS58291 ColoCenter - ColoCenter b.v., NL Netherlands 8,448 38,654,705,664 IPv6 IPv6
AS208972 gibirnet-tr - GIBIRNET ILETISIM HIZMETLERI SANAYI VE TICARET LIMITED SIRKETI, TR Turkey 1,024 17,179,869,184 IPv6 IPv6
AS5524 BREEDBANDNEDERLAND - Signet B.V., NL Netherlands 23,296 94,489,346,048 IPv6 IPv6
AS49697 Joey-Network - Joey Julian Koenig, DE Germany 256 262,144 IPv6 IPv6
AS197731 TUXIS - The Internet Engineering Group B.V., NL Netherlands 3,328 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS212895 Johannes-Ernst - Johannes Ernst, DE Germany 256 6,160,384 IPv6 IPv6
AS262485 S.C. RIO TELECOMUNICACOES E INFORMATICA LTDA, BR Brazil 4,096 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS50655 ITSHOSTED-AS - Its Hosted, NL Netherlands 2,048 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS203815 Exa-Omicron-AS - Robert Gerrit Johannes Verspuij trading as Exa-Omicron, NL Netherlands 1,024 34,359,738,368 IPv6 IPv6
AS41327 FIBERTELECOM-AS - Fiber Telecom S.p.A., IT Italy 8,192 68,719,476,736 IPv6 IPv6
AS48635 PCEXTREME-NL - PCextreme B.V., NL Netherlands 92,928 266,707,927,040 IPv6 IPv6
AS50673 Serverius-as - Serverius Holding B.V., NL Netherlands 92,160 223,338,496,000 IPv6 IPv6
AS51088 A2B - A2B IP B.V., NL Netherlands 37,632 55,834,640,384 IPv6 IPv6
AS56510 SOURCEXS-AS - Source XS B.V., NL Netherlands 2,560 34,359,803,904 IPv6 IPv6
AS15169 GOOGLE - Google LLC, US United States 14,500,352 98,801,090,560 IPv6 IPv6
AS39396 NBIS-AS - NBI Systems Ltd., BG Bulgaria 6,144 4,295,032,832 IPv6 IPv6
AS44684 MYTHIC - Mythic Beasts Ltd, GB United Kingdom 8,704 4,295,163,904 IPv6 IPv6
AS49134 AS_10VPN - 10VPN Research Network LTD, GB United Kingdom 0 1,245,184 IPv6 IPv6
AS6939 HURRICANE - Hurricane Electric LLC, US United States 503,040 282,665,489,268,736 IPv6 IPv6
AS27720 CITTA TELECOM LTDA, BR Brazil 5,120 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS205668 GREENMINIHOST - Green Mini host BV, NL Netherlands 4,096 12,884,901,888 IPv6 IPv6
AS206264 AMARUTU-TECHNOLOGY - Amarutu Technology Ltd, SC Seychelles 5,888 38,654,836,736 IPv6 IPv6
AS211623 NAML - NAML B.V., NL Netherlands 256 4,295,032,832 IPv6 IPv6
AS5390 EuroNet - Euronet Communications B.V., NL Netherlands 319,488 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS42156 GNX - GNX B.V., NL Netherlands 1,536 38,654,705,664 IPv6 IPv6
AS49453 GLOBALLAYER - Global Layer B.V., NL Netherlands 44,032 524,288 IPv6 IPv6
AS57112 ASN-F2X - F2X Operator B.V., NL Netherlands 27,648 137,438,953,472 IPv6 IPv6
AS207080 Basil-Fillan - Jack Fillan, GB United Kingdom 256 4,295,163,904 IPv6 IPv6
AS3856 PCH-AS - Packet Clearing House, US United States 256 65,536 IPv6 IPv6
AS12414 NL-SOLCON - Solcon Internetdiensten B.V., NL Netherlands 163,328 42,949,672,960 IPv6 IPv6
AS56630 MELBICOM-EU-AS - Melbikomas UAB, LT Lithuania 36,352 15,571,222,528 IPv6 IPv6
AS61349 MAXITEL - MaxiTEL Telecom B.V., NL Netherlands 4,608 17,179,869,184 IPv6 IPv6
AS62167 Tismi - Tismi BV, NL Netherlands 3,072 42,949,672,960 IPv6 IPv6
AS21859 ZNET - Zenlayer Inc, US United States 522,248 20,336,017,408 IPv6 IPv6
AS24961 MYLOC-AS - myLoc managed IT AG, DE Germany 134,144 51,539,673,088 IPv6 IPv6
AS49127 ASIMO-AS - Asimo Networks B.V., NL Netherlands 4,352 38,654,705,664 IPv6 IPv6
AS52000 MIRhosting - Innovation IT Solutions LTD, RU Russian Federation 19,456 38,655,229,952 IPv6 IPv6
AS60230 Neterra - Neterra Ltd., BG Bulgaria 768 65,536 IPv6 IPv6
AS204003 ORTGIES-IT - Jan-Eric Ortgies, DE Germany 0 655,360 IPv6 IPv6
AS207616 ALTROSKY - Altrosky Technology Ltd., NL Netherlands 512 655,360 IPv6 IPv6
AS20847 PREVIDER-AS - Previder B.V., NL Netherlands 50,432 17,180,000,256 IPv6 IPv6
AS56911 ASN-WARIAN - Warian S.R.L., IT Italy 17,152 9,395,634,176 IPv6 IPv6
AS60404 Liteserver - The Infrastructure Group B.V., NL Netherlands 16,640 73,082,077,184 IPv6 IPv6
AS51430 ALTUS - AltusHost B.V., NL Netherlands 18,176 12,885,950,464 IPv6 IPv6
AS56647 FUSIONMEDIA - Fusion Media Limited, VG British Virgin Islands 2,560 262,144 IPv6 IPv6
AS25596 CAMBRIUM-AS - Cambrium IT Services B.V., NL Netherlands 24,576 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS34872 Servperso_Systems - Cedric Rossius, BE Belgium 512 4,295,163,904 IPv6 IPv6
AS201789 NETOPS - NETOPS LTD., CY Cyprus 1,280 0 IPv6 IPv6
AS203729 igloo22225 - Jacob Slater, US United States 1,280 4,295,229,440 IPv6 IPv6
AS263444 Open X Tecnologia Ltda, BR Brazil 2,048 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS3245 DIGSYS-AS - Digital Systems Ltd, BG Bulgaria 50,432 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS8400 TELEKOM-AS - TELEKOM SRBIJA a.d., RS Serbia 715,520 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS20495 WEDARE - We Dare B.V., NL Netherlands 44,544 10,737,418,240 IPv6 IPv6
AS56662 EUTPNET - e-utp.net Marcin Gondek, PL Poland 0 65,536 IPv6 IPv6
AS209288 Transit020 - Johan Willem David den Heijer trading as 020 ICT, NL Netherlands 1,280 68,719,476,736 IPv6 IPv6
AS29049 Delta-Telecom-AS - Delta Telecom Ltd, AZ Azerbaijan 64,000 917,504 IPv6 IPv6
AS48646 STEFAN6 - Stefan Dunkel, DE Germany 1,536 1,441,792 IPv6 IPv6
AS43727 KVANT-TELECOM - KVANT-TELEKOM Closed Joint Stock Company, RU Russian Federation 27,648 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS44103 BAKKER-IT-AS - Rick Bakker trading as Bakker IT, NL Netherlands 3,328 85,899,542,528 IPv6 IPv6
AS206064 ALPINE-NORTH-NETWORK - Alpine North LTD, GB United Kingdom 0 524,288 IPv6 IPv6
AS14840 COMMCORP COMUNICACOES LTDA, BR Brazil 53,760 15,032,778,752 IPv6 IPv6
AS60022 SONA-AS - Sona Business B.V., NL Netherlands 2,048 8,589,934,592 IPv6 IPv6
AS210103 DDPO - Cedric Dasnois, BE Belgium 0 262,144 IPv6 IPv6
AS25374 ESCOMBG-AS - ESCOM Ltd. - Haskovo, BG Bulgaria 37,888 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS262403 Net Way Telecom LTDA ME, BR Brazil 3,072 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS34772 NEOTEL-AS-MK - NEOTEL DOO export-import Skopje, MK Macedonia 63,488 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS39022 DEEPMEDIA-AS - Deep Media / V.A.J. Bruijnes (sole proprietorship), NL Netherlands 512 65,536 IPv6 IPv6
AS202120 COMSAVE-AS - Comsave B.V., NL Netherlands 22,528 107,374,182,400 IPv6 IPv6
AS213035 SERVERION-AS - Des Capital B.V., NL Netherlands 40,960 34,359,738,368 IPv6 IPv6
AS39120 CONVERGENZE-AS - Convergenze S.p.A., IT Italy 95,744 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS50522 POCOS - POCOS B.V., NL Netherlands 17,408 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS9558 PRIMECROWN-AS-IN - PrimeCrown Technologies Private Limited, IN India 2,816 270,729,216 IPv6 IPv6
AS32934 FACEBOOK - Facebook, Inc., US United States 144,128 8,606,777,344 IPv6 IPv6
AS58299 OPENFACTORY-AS - Openfactory GmbH, CH Switzerland 2,816 8,590,065,664 IPv6 IPv6
AS202365 Chronos - Omer GOLGELI, TR Turkey 1,792 1,572,864 IPv6 IPv6
AS202562 APERTURE-NETWORKS - Roelf Wichertjes, NL Netherlands 256 4,295,229,440 IPv6 IPv6
AS16265 LEASEWEB-NETWORK - LeaseWeb Network B.V., NL Netherlands 0 0 IPv6 IPv6
AS35709 TRIX - Ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie, NL Netherlands 1,024 17,179,869,184 IPv6 IPv6
AS39637 NETLOGICS-AS - ADES BV, NL Netherlands 8,192 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS198651 HOSTLINE - HOSTLINE, UAB, LT Lithuania 5,376 48,050,012,160 IPv6 IPv6
AS201401 NewVM-AS - Unithost Internet B.V., NL Netherlands 7,168 21,474,836,480 IPv6 IPv6
AS212906 moneroj-ca - Moneroj s.r.o., CZ Czech 256 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS1820 WNET - WNET TELECOM USA Corp., US United States 37,120 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS41960 NEXTPERTISE - Nextpertise B.V., NL Netherlands 51,200 107,374,182,400 IPv6 IPv6
AS263009 FORTE TELECOM LTDA., BR Brazil 3,072 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS263985 FABIO DA SILVA GARCIA COMPUTADORES - ME, BR Brazil 2,048 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS24940 HETZNER-AS - Hetzner Online GmbH, DE Germany 2,042,624 111,669,346,304 IPv6 IPv6
AS25455 GUARDFOX-AS - Guardfox SRL, MD Moldova 11,264 34,359,738,368 IPv6 IPv6
AS207176 OPENFIBER - OPENFIBER B.V., NL Netherlands 6,400 4,294,967,296 IPv6 IPv6
AS209650 ZHIYUAN-AS - Wu Zhiyuan, NL Netherlands 256 5,832,704 IPv6 IPv6

Peers at this Exchange Point

Country/Region IX IPv4 IPv6 Port Speed Updated
Germany KleyReX - KleyReX Internet Exchange 193.189.82.115 2001:7f8:33::a120:4543:1 100 Mbps 2018-09-07 00:00:46
Netherlands Speed-IX - Speed Internet Exchange 10 Gbps 2020-02-19 04:08:21

Private Peering Facilities

Country/Region Name City Website Updated
as-block:       AS196608 - AS213403
descr:          RIPE NCC ASN block
remarks:        These AS Numbers are assigned to network operators in the RIPE NCC service region.
mnt-by:         RIPE-NCC-HM-MNT
created:        2020-10-28T07:56:37Z
last-modified:  2020-10-28T07:56:37Z
source:         RIPE



aut-num:        AS204543
as-name:        FHRNET
descr:          Filip Hruska's Experimental Network
remarks:        /**********************************************************
remarks:        * What's this?
remarks:        * The answer to that one's at the bottom of that glass.
remarks:        * ...............
remarks:        * I should go.
remarks:        **********************************************************/
org:            ORG-FA866-RIPE
remarks:        -- SkylonHost --
import:         from AS202297 accept ANY
export:         to AS202297 announce AS-FHR
remarks:        -- Vultr --
import:         from AS20473 accept ANY
export:         to AS20473 announce AS-FHR
remarks:        -- Hurricane Electric --
import:         from AS6939 accept ANY
export:         to AS6939 announce AS-FHR
remarks:        -- Arachnitec --
import:         from AS6921 accept ANY
export:         to AS6921 announce AS-FHR
remarks:        -- Anynode --
import:         from AS20150 accept ANY
export:         to AS20150 announce AS-FHR
remarks:        -- Speed-IX Route server --
import:         from AS41441 accept ANY
export:         to AS41441 announce AS-FHR
remarks:        -- KleyReX Route server --
import:         from AS31142 accept ANY
export:         to AS31142 announce AS-FHR
admin-c:        FH5282-RIPE
tech-c:         FH5282-RIPE
status:         ASSIGNED
mnt-by:         RIPE-NCC-END-MNT
mnt-by:         FHRNET-MNT
created:        2018-02-20T10:49:27Z
last-modified:  2020-11-16T17:52:17Z
source:         RIPE
sponsoring-org: ORG-SSL82-RIPE

organisation:   ORG-FA866-RIPE
org-name:       Filip Hruska
org-type:       OTHER
address:        Nad Lomem 447, Lazne Tousen
address:        CZECH REPUBLIC
phone:          +420 314314128
abuse-c:        ACRO12905-RIPE
mnt-ref:        FHRNET-MNT
mnt-ref:        MNT-NETART
mnt-by:         FHR7-MNT
mnt-by:         FHRNET-MNT
created:        2018-01-03T23:16:10Z
last-modified:  2019-05-14T21:48:36Z
source:         RIPE # Filtered

person:         Filip Hruska
address:        Nad Lomem 447, Lazne Tousen
address:        CZECH REPUBLIC
phone:          +420314314128
nic-hdl:        FH5282-RIPE
mnt-by:         FHR7-MNT
created:        2018-01-03T22:57:02Z
last-modified:  2018-02-24T17:05:09Z
source:         RIPE